Cloaking is a SEO technique where the content that the search engine spiders/crawlers see is different than what’s presented to the user.
This is achieved by delivering content based on the server’s IP addresses. When a user is identified as a spider or crawler then a different version of the webpage is delivered.
This is often used in unethical practices normally referred to as “Black Hat SEO”. However, it also has some practical purpose (if somewhat outdated in usage) to help search engine spiders find content that might be otherwise missed.

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